Bend or twist (defect)

Distortion similar to warpageTerm generally applied to distortion that results during quenching from heat-treating temperatures; hand straightening, press straightening, or cold restriking is employed, depending on the configuration of the part and the amount of warpage involved. The condition is governed by applicable straightness tolerances; beyond tolerances, warpage is defect and cause for rejection. The term is not to be confused with "bend" or "twist."... More, but resulting from different causes; generally caused in the forgingThe process of working metal to a desired shape by impact or pressure in hammers, forging machines (upsetters), presses, rolls, and related forming equipment. or trimming operations. When the distortion is along the length of the part, it is called “bend”; when across the width, it is called “twist.”