A testingA nondestructive method of inspection/testing for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferro-magnetic materials. The metal is magnetized, then iron powder is applied. The powder adheres to lines of flux leakage, revealing surface and near-surface discontinuities.... More procedure for conditions such as porosity, inclusionsParticles of nonmetallic compounds of metals and impurity elements that are present in ingots and are carried over in wrought products. The shape and distribution of inclusions are changed by plastic deformation and contribute to directionality in metals.... More, segregation, carburization, and flow linesPatterns in a forging resulting from the elongation of nonhomogeneous constituents and the grain structure of the material in the direction of working during forging; usually revealed by macroetching. See also Grain Flow. from hot workingThe plastic deformation of metal at such a temperature and strain rate that recrystallization takes place simultaneously with the deformation, thus avoiding any strain hardening. Also referred to as hot forging and hot forming. Contrast with cold working.... More. After applying a suitable etching solution to the polished metal surface, the structure revealed by the action of the reagent can be observed visually. See Etch testThe process of revealing the macrostructure of metals by preferential attack of a prepared surface by a suitable reagent..