(1) The forging operation in which stock is preformed or shaped to a predetermined size and contour prior to subsequent die forging operations. When a preform operation is required, it will precede a forging operation and will be performed in conjunction with the forging operation and in the same heat. (2) Ring blanks of a specific shape for profile (contour) ring rolling. (3) The initially pressed powder metallurgy compact to be subjected to repressing.