Glossary

T-Z

Table mill

In ring rolling, a type of ring forging equipment employing multiple mandrels with a common main roll. Usually used in high volume production of small-diameter rolled rings.

Target machining

Incorporating a “target” (benchmark or gage point) on a forging to facilitate machining; coined locating surfaces and drilled centers are commonly used.

Temperature (Forging)

The temperature of the forging stock just prior to forging.

Template (Templet)

A gage or pattern made in a die department, usually from sheet steel; used to check dimensions on forgings and as an aid in sinking die impressions in order to correct dimensions.

Thermal cracks

Ruptures in metal set up by stresses due to thermal differentials.

Thermal stress

Stresses in metal resulting from non-uniform distribution of heat.

Thermomechanical working

A general term covering a variety of processes combining controlled thermal and deformation treatments to obtain synergistic effects, such as improvement in strength without loss of toughness.

Tolerance

The permissible deviation from a specification for any design characteristic.

Tong hold

The portion of the forging billet, usually on one end, that is gripped by the operator’s tongs. It is removed from the part at the end of the forging operation. Common to drop hammer and press-type forging.

Tongs

Metal holder used to handle hot or cold forgings.

Tool steel

A superior grade of steel made primarily for use in tools and dies.

Tooling marks

Indications imparted to the surface of the forged part from dies containing surface imperfections or dies on which some repair work has been done. These marks are usually slight rises or depressions in the metal.

Tooling pad

See Chucking lug.

Trepanning

Removal of a core of metal by a hollow tool. May be performed by a hollow punch at forging temperatures or by a hollow cutting tool by machining at ambient temperatures.

Trim

The removal of the excess metal or flash produced during the forging process. The operation takes place in tools produced to the peripheral shape of the component, the component being pushed through the female impression by the identically-shaped male punch. The operation may be carried out hot or at room temperature.

Trim and punch

(1) A shearing operation to remove both an inner and an outer section of metal from a blocked or finished forging. (2) A combination of two operations whereby flash and punchout are removed simultaneously. The operation is generally performed on a trim press using a combination trim and punch die.

Trimmer

The combination of trimmer punch, trimmer blades, and perhaps trimmer shoe used to remove flash from a forging.

Trimmer blade

The portion of the trimmers through which the forging is pushed to shear off the flash. The shearing edge may be in more than one plane in order to fit the parting line of the forging.

Trimmer die

The upper portion of the trimmer that comes in contact with the forging and pushes it through the trimmer blades; the lower end of the trimmer punch is generally shaped to fit the surface of the forging against which it pushes. Also termed Trimmer punch.

Trimming press

A power press suitable for trimming flash from forgings.

Tryout

Preparatory run to check or test equipment, lubricant, stock, tools, or methods prior to a production run. Production tryout is run with tools previously approved; new die tryout is run with new tools not previously approved.

Tumbling

(1) The process for removing scale from forgings in a rotating container by means of impact with each other and abrasive particles and small bits of metal. (2) A process for removing scale and roughness from forgings by impact with each other, together with abrasive material in a rotating container.

Turning

Removing metal from the outside of a part by means of a tool in a lathe or similar machine tool.

Ultrasonic testing

A method of nondestructive testing of solid metal for internal flaws utilizing high-frequency sound waves.

Undercuts

Sections of a forging which, if driven into the impression while the metal is hot, would lock themselves into a die impression and prevent removal of the forging without distortion.

Underfill

A portion of a forging that has insufficient metal to give it the true shape of the impression.

UNS

The Unified Numbering System. A system that provides a means of correlating many nationally used numbering systems currently administered by societies, trade associations, and individual users and producers of metals and alloys, thereby avoiding confusion caused by use of more than one identification number for the same material. It also avoids having the same number assigned to two or more entirely different materials.

Upset forging

(1) A forging made by upsetting an appropriate length of bar, billet or bloom. (2) Working metal to increase the cross-sectional area of a portion or all of the stock. (3) A forging formed by heading or gathering the material by pressure upon hot or cold metal between dies operated in a horizontal plane.

Upsetter (Forging machine)

A horizontal forging machine where the workpiece is gripped between two grooved dies and deformed by a punch that exerts force on the end of the stock.

Vent

A small hole in a punch or die for admitting air to avoid suction holding or for relieving pockets of trapped air that would prevent die closure or action.

Vent mark

A small protrusion resulting from the entrance of metal into die vent holes.

Warm forging

Deformation at elevated temperatures below the recrystallization temperature. The flow stress and rate of strain hardening are reduced with increasing temperature; thus, lower forces are required than in cold working. For steel, the temperatures range from about 1000° F to just below the normal hot working range of 1900 to 2300° F. See also Cold Working and Hot Working.

Warpage

Term generally applied to distortion that results during quenching from heat-treating temperatures; hand straightening, press straightening, or cold restriking is employed, depending on the configuration of the part and the amount of warpage involved. The condition is governed by applicable straightness tolerances; beyond tolerances, warpage is defect and cause for rejection. The term is not to be confused with “bend” or “twist.”

Ways

The fitted V-shaped grooves in the ram and columns of a hammer or press that guide the descent and ascent of the ram.

Web

A relatively flat, thin portion of a forging, generally parallel to the forging plane—that connects ribs and bosses. See also Rib.

Wrought steel

A descriptive term for any particle of steel that has been produced by hot mechanical working.