Inspection procedures for detecting surface irregularities using penetrating liquids containing dyes or fluorescent substances.
The offset portion of the driveshaft that governs the stroke or distance the crosshead moves on a mechanical or manual shear.
A mechanical press in which an eccentric, instead of a crankshaft, is used to move the ram.
The portion of the die impression that distributes metal, during forging, into areas where it is most needed to facilitate filling the cavities of subsequent impressions to be used in the forging sequence. See also Fuller.
The forging operation of working a bar between contoured dies while turning it 90° between blows to produce a varying rectangular cross section.
The amount of applied energy, in percentage, that is employed in deforming the workpiece to the total energy expended by the forging equipment.
Also known as knockout. Heat treated steel rods located within the dies and operated by the press action to remove a completed forging after the forging cycle.
Bar end left over after cutting bar lengths of stock into forging multiples. See also Multiple.
The process of revealing the macrostructure of metals by preferential attack of a prepared surface by a suitable reagent.
A hollow forging operation whereby the diameters are increased by reducing wall thickness with relatively little increase in length by working on a mandrel.
The process of forcing metal to flow through a die orifice in the same direction in which energy is being applied (forward extrusion); or in the reverse direction (backward extrusion), in which case the metal usually follows the contour of the punch or moving forming tool. The extrusion principle is used in many impression die forging applications.
A metal slug used as extrusion stock.
See Extrusion pipe.
A central oxide-lined discontinuity that occasionally occurs in the last 10% to 20% of an extruded bar. It is caused by the oxidized outer surface of the billet flowing around the end of the billet and into the center of the bar during the final stages of extrusion. Also called coring.
The thin projection formed on a forging by trimming or when the metal under pressure is forced into hairline cracks or die interfaces.
A characteristic of wrought metal, including forgings, indicated by a fibrous or woody structure of a polished and etched section, and indicating directional properties. Fiber is chiefly due to the extension of the constituents of the metal synonymous with flow lines and grain flow in the direction of working.
The concave intersection of two surfaces. In forging, the desired radius at the concave intersection of two surfaces is usually specified.
The thin projection formed on a forging by trimming or when metal is forced under pressure into hairline cracks or die interfaces.
(1) The forging operation in which the part is forged into its final shape in the finish die. If only one finish operation is scheduled to be performed in the finish die, this operation will be identified simply as finish; first, second, or third finish designations are so termed when one or more finish operations are to be performed in the same finish die. (2) The surface condition of a forging after machining. (3) The material machined off the surface of a forging to produce the finish machine component.
A designation that a forging must have sufficient size over the dimensions given on the drawing so that all surfaces may be machined in order to obtain the dimensions shown on the drawing. The amount of additional stock necessary for machining allowance depends on the size and shape of the part, and is agreed on by the vendor and the user.
The amount of stock left on the surface of the forging to be removed by subsequent machining. Also called “machining allowance” or “forging envelope.”
See Conventional Forging.
Flash removal from a forging; usually performed by trimming, but sometimes by band sawing or similar techniques.
The die impression that imparts the final shape to a forged part.
The die set used in the last forging step.
The temperature at which hot mechanical working of a metal is completed or discontinued.
Randomly oriented internal thermal cracks (“shatter cracks”) in steels resulting from critical combinations of stress and hydrogen content. In a fracture surface, flakes appear as bright silvery areas; on an etched surface they appear as short discontinuous cracks.
The correction of distortion in metal structures by localized heating with a gas flame.
A projecting rim or edge of a part; usually narrow and of approximately constant width for stiffening or fastening. See Rib.
Metal in excess of that required to fill completely the blocking or finishing forging impression of a set of dies. Flash extends out from the body of the forging as a thin plate at the line where the dies meet and is subsequently removed by trimming. Because it cools faster than the body of the component during forging, flash can serve to restrict metal flow at the line where dies meet, thus ensuring complete filling of the impression. See also Closed-Die Forging.
Portion of flash remaining after trimming. Flash extension is measured from the intersection of the draft and flash at the body of the forging to the trimmed edge of the stock.
Configuration in the blocking or finishing impression of forging dies designed to restrict or to encourage the growth of flash at the parting line, whichever may be required in a particular case to ensure complete filling of the impression.
The line left on a forging after the flash has been trimmed off. See Parting Line.
That portion of the flash located entirely within a forging or enclosed by two or more forgings within a cluster of forgings.
“True” closed die forging in which metal deformed in a die cavity permits virtually no excess metal to escape.
Forging worked between flat or simple contour dies by repeated strokes and manipulation of the workpiece. Also known as “hand” or “smith” forging. See Open-Die Forging.
Usually a flat surface cut to an exact depth below the parting line in each die to widen the material so as to more nearly cover the next impression.
The forging operation of flattening the forging stock prior to further working.
(1) A die mounted in a die holder or a punch mounted in its holder such that a slight amount of motion compensates for tolerance in the die parts, the work, or the press. (2) A die mounted on heavy springs to allow vertical motion in some trimming, shearing, and forming operations.
Patterns in a forging resulting from the elongation of nonhomogeneous constituents and the grain structure of the material in the direction of working during forging; usually revealed by macroetching. See also Grain Flow.
A measure of materials resistance to deformation and depends upon such things as temperature and strain rate.
A forging defect caused by metal flow past the base of a rib with consequent rupture of the grain structure.
Inspection with either dry magnetic particles or those in a liquid suspension, the particles being coated with a fluorescent substance to increase the visibility of the indications.
A forging defect caused by folding the metal back on its own surface during its flow in the die cavity. See Lap.
A dimensionless factor that is used to describe the relative force requirement of a forging or a forging section.
The relative ability of material to deform without fracturing, rupturing, or developing flaws. Also describes the resistance to flow from deformation. See also Formability.
The process of working metal to a desired shape by impact or pressure in hammers, forging machines (upsetters), presses, rolls, and related forming equipment.
A wrought metal slug used as forging stock.
Forms for making forgings; they generally consist of a top and bottom die. The simplest will form a completed forging in a single impression; the most complex, consisting of several die inserts, may have a number of impressions for the progressive working of complicated shapes. Forging dies are usually in pairs, with part of the impression in one of the blocks and the rest of the impression in the other block.
See Finish Allowance.
A type of forging equipment, related to the mechanical press, in which the main forming energy is applied horizontally to the workpiece, which is gripped and held by prior action of the grip dies.
The plane that includes the principal die face and is perpendicular to the direction of ram travel. When parting surfaces of the dies are flat, the forging plane coincides with the parting line.
Term describing stock of sufficiently superior quality to make it suitable for commercially satisfactory forgings.
Ratio of the cross-sectional areas before and after forging; sometimes refers to percentage reduction in thickness.
Also known as reducer roll. A machine situated alongside the forging machine for pre-forming. The operation is carried out by passing the work-piece between contra-rotating shafts, which carry appropriately shaped dies.
A wrought rod, bar, or other section suitable for subsequent change in cross section by forging.
Elastic residual stresses induced by forging or by cooling from the forging temperature. They can be relieved by subsequent annealing or normalizing.
Hot rolling to produce bars having contoured cross sections; not to be confused with the roll forming of sheet metal or with roll forging.
Same as direct extrusion. See Extrusion.
The resistance of a given material to catastrophic failure in the presence of an existing sharp crack.
The main structure of a press.
Those made from steels with special alloying-element additions to facilitate machining.
A factor that, when multiplied by the flow stress, expresses the friction shear stress.
Portion of the die that is used in hammer forging primarily to reduce the cross section and lengthen a portion of the forging stock. The fullering impression is often used in conjunction with an edger (or edging impression).
Reducing the cross section of a forging between ends of stock.
A portion of the die that has been removed by machining and permits the bar or tongs to be closer to the impression without being smashed.
Any operation whereby the cross-section of a portion of the forging stock is increased above its original size.
Guides or shoes that ensure the proper parallelism, squareness, and sliding fit between press components such as the ram and the frame. They are usually adjustable to compensate for wear and to establish operating clearance.
An individual crystal in a polycrystalline metal or alloy.
Fiber-like lines appearing on polished and etched sections of forgings that are caused by orientation of the constituents of the metal in the direction of working during forging. Grain flow produced by proper die design can improves the mechanical properties of forgings.
An increase in the size of the grains of a metal with a proportional reduction of the number of grains.
In forging aluminum, rapid metal flow sometimes causes a separation or rupture of grain. Metal flow is affected by lubricant, die and metal temperature, part shape, alloy, and hammer operator technique; consequently, any one or combination of these factors can cause grain separation. The irregular crevices are seldom more than a few thousandths of an inch deep and can be removed by grinding or polishing.
An expression that rates the number of grains per unit area of cross section as determined by metallographic examination.
A class of forging hammer wherein energy for forging is obtained by the mass and velocity of a freely falling ram and the attached upper die. Examples are board hammers and air-lift hammers.
The lateral or clamping dies used in a mechanical upsetter or forging machine.
The parts of a drop hammer or press that guide the up-and-down motion of the ram in a true vertical direction.
A shallow impression machined around the periphery of a forging die impression outside the flash land that acts as a reservoir for excess metal.
A machine that applies a sharp blow to the work area through the fall of a ram onto an anvil. The ram can be driven by gravity or power. See also Gravity Hammer and Power-Driven Hammer.
The mechanical forming of metal by means of a hammer. The action of the hammer is that of an instantaneous application of pressure in the form of a sudden blow.
(See also Open Die Forging) (1) A forging made by hand on an anvil or under a power hammer without dies containing an exact finishing impression of the part. Such forgings approximate each other in size and shape but do not have the commercial exactness of production die forgings. Used where the quantity of forgings required does not warrant expenditure for special dies, or where the size or shape of the piece is such as to require means other than die forging. (2) A forging worked between flat or simply shaped dies by repeated strokes and manipulation of the piece. Also known as smith forging or flat die forging.
A straightening operation performed on a surface plate to bring a forging within the straightness tolerance. Frequently, a bottom die from a set of finish dies is used instead of a surface plate. Hand tools used include mallets, sledges, blocks, jacks, and oil gear presses in addition to regular inspection tools.
Holes drilled in opposite ends of the die block to permit handling by the use of a crane or bar.
Nicks and gouges formed on forgings if improperly handled; most prevalent for forgings in the as-forged condition prior to heat treatment.
See Forging machine.
The upsetting of wire, rod, or bar stock in dies to form parts that usually contain portions that are greater in cross-sectional area than the original wire, rod, or bar.
A term used to identify the material produced from a single melting operation. Different heats of the same material can vary in chemical composition within prescribed limits. Stock from a single heat will have a consistent analysis and more uniform properties. Also known in the U.K. as “Cast”.
Amount of forging stock placed in a batch-type furnace at one time.
See Ladle analysis.
A sequence of controlled heating and cooling operations applied to a solid metal to impart desired properties.
Alloy steel designed for application at elevated temperatures.
A product machined from bar or plate stock or from a hand forging, rather than from an impression die forging. The process is commonly known as “hogging out” material.
(1) Processes for forging tubes or ring forgings. (2) Cylindrical open die forging, e.g., thick-walled tubes or rings.
Same as hot working—plastically deforming an alloy at a temperature above its recrystallization point, i.e, high enough to avoid strain hardening.
An in-process examination of forgings, using gauges, templates, or other nondestructive inspection methods to ensure quality.
Lack of ductility when metal is hot.
The removal of flash or excess metal from a hot part (such as a forging) in a trimming press.
A bulk forming process for enlarging and reshaping some of the cross-sectional area of a bar, tube, or other product form of uniform (usually round) section. It is accomplished by holding the heated forging stock between grooved dies and applying pressure to the end of the stock, in the direction of its axis, by the use of a heading tool, which spreads (upsets) the end by metal displacement. Also called hot heading or hot upsetting. See also Heading and Upsetting.
The plastic deformation of metal at such a temperature and strain rate that recrystallization takes place simultaneously with the deformation, thus avoiding any strain hardening. Also referred to as hot forging and hot forming. Contrast with cold working.
A process in which dies are heated close to the forging temperature of the alloy being forged; used for difficult-to-forge alloys.