Warm forging

Deformation at elevated temperatures below the recrystallization temperatureThe temperature of the forging stock just prior to forging.. The flow stressA measure of materials resistance to deformation and depends upon such things as temperature and strain rate. and rate of strain hardeningAn increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range. Also known as work hardening. are reduced with increasing temperatureThe temperature of the forging stock just prior to forging.; thus, lower forces are required than in cold workingPermanent plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature below its recrystallization point—low enough to produce strain hardening. Usually, but not necessarily, conducted at room temperature. Also referred to as cold forming or cold forging. Contrast with hot working.... More. For steel, the temperatures range from about 1000° F to just below the normal hot workingThe plastic deformation of metal at such a temperature and strain rate that recrystallization takes place simultaneously with the deformation, thus avoiding any strain hardening. Also referred to as hot forging and hot forming. Contrast with cold working.... More range of 1900 to 2300° F. See also ColdFaults produced in a forging by incorrect tool design or incorrect flow of steel that results in the formation of a crack in the forging surface. Working and Hot Working.