Closed die forging
The shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come together to enclose the workpiece on all sides. The impression for the forging can be entirely in either die or divided between the top and bottom dies. Impression-die forging, often used interchangeably with the term closed die forging, refers to a closed-die operation in which the dies contain a provision for controlling the flow of excess material, or flash, that is generated. By contrast, in flashless forging, the material is deformed in a cavity that allows little or no escape of excess material. See Impression Die Forging.