Various The process of working metal to a desired shape by impact or pressure in hammers, forging machines (upsetters), presses, rolls, and related forming equipment. processes conducted at or near ambient temperatures to produce metal components to close tolerances and net shape. These include A preliminary forging operation to give the piece approximately the correct shape for subsequent forming., Faults produced in a forging by incorrect tool design or incorrect flow of steel that results in the formation of a crack in the forging surface. (1) A forging operation in which the cross section of forging stock is reduced and the stock lengthened between flat or simple contour dies. See also Fullering. (2) in heat treating, the same as tempering., Plastically deforming metal at ambient temperatures to increase the cross-sectional area of the stock (either solid bar or tubing) at one or more points along the longitudinal axis. See also Heading and Upsetting., (1) A post-forging process—on hot or cold parts—used to attain closer tolerances or improved surfaces. (2) A closed-die squeezing operation in which all surfaces of a workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the work.... More, The process of forcing metal to flow through a die orifice in the same direction in which energy is being applied (forward extrusion); or in the reverse direction (backward extrusion), in which case the metal usually follows the contour of the punch or moving forming tool. The extrusion principle is used in many impression die forging applications.... More (forward or backward), punching, thread rolling and others.