Flow lines

Patterns in a forgingThe process of working metal to a desired shape by impact or pressure in hammers, forging machines (upsetters), presses, rolls, and related forming equipment. resulting from the elongation of nonhomogeneous constituents and the grainAn individual crystal in a polycrystalline metal or alloy. structure of the material in the direction of working during forging; usually revealed by macroetching. See also Grain FlowFiber-like lines appearing on polished and etched sections of forgings that are caused by orientation of the constituents of the metal in the direction of working during forging. Grain flow produced by proper die design can improves the mechanical properties of forgings.... More.